Decidi manter este blog. Ainda que com novos projetos. Escrevo mais depois.
I decided to keep this blog. Yet with some refurbished projects. I’ll write more later.
Algumas leituras das matérias que estou cursando no semestre – na forma de livro, enquanto outras estão na forma de textos xerocados já comecei a adiantar, se bem que a segunda forma é empregada apenas como último recurso, em um esforço para economizar grana! Quanto ao resto, a biblioteca ajuda. Por sorte, já tenho alguns dos livros, comprados há vários anos aos poucos, em um esforço para montar uma biblioteca filosófica minimamente aceitável.
Este semestre consistirá em uma viagem em voo de pássaro sobre os diferentes sistemas e tradições filosóficos, o papel do saber histórico-filosófico e uma análise estrutural das produções filosóficas, além de uma assimilação das noções de Lógica tal como utilizada no campo da Filosofia.
UPDATE 05/11: em um esforço para obter fontes de credibilidade, foi-me recomendado hoje este excelente blog, “Não Gosto de Plágio”. Vale a pena tê-lo à mão, como ferramenta defensiva, a começar por esta postagem que enumera (ANTI)referências bibliográficas. (e mais esta!) Vale a pena também acompanhar outro blog, Livros e Afins, com respectivas páginas Facebook e Google+ (ver links no próprio blog).
OS ARTISTAS FORA DA MÍDIA
Nunca iluda um artista fora da mídia. Ele é um anjo que se tornou triste. E sobretudo jamais o desiluda. É pecado mortal dizer ou pensar: “Coitado, esse acabou e não sabe”. Não seja piedoso por hipocrisia: ele percebe. Tenha paciência com suas queixas e busque compreender-lhe a arte. Há dois tipos de artista fora da mídia: os muito superiores ao que em cada momento domina o mercado, e os muito inferiores. Um acaba injustamente infeliz, o outro acaba chato. Mas o sonho de ambos é simples e santo: existir, disseminar vivências sensíveis, ter o direito de mostrar quem são.Vítima do implacável teor seletivo do mercado e seus ávidos especialistas, por justos ou injustos critérios, com ou sem qualidade artística, deixa de vender discos, livros e de atrair público.Vai para o apartheid da fama. O artista fora da mídia é alma no limbo. Aguarda veredito do Destino com o olhar cavo e machucado de certos cães. Expulso da passarela iluminada, ele amarga injustiças e não entende o que acontece e por que resta esquecido. Espremido entre o orgulho de não pedir e a dor da discriminação, divide-se entre os que se conformam, entristecidos, e os que se fazem ressentidos e descobrem argumentos, justos e injustos, contra os que não os chamam para atuar. Jamais prometa a um fora da mídia o que não poderá fazer. Mais vale um não sincero que um sim impossível de ser cumprido.Jamais o receba com ar de enfado ou palavras de consolação. Tampouco com esmolas afetivas. Ou lhe dê trabalho ou lhe fale franco. Ele é um ser de sofrida solidão e terna dependência de reconhecimento e carinho. Uiva saudades para as luas imaginárias de suas lembranças. É um tipo de excluído que não está nos manuais dos direitos humanos.Que Deus dê a todo e toda artista fora da mídia paciência e esperança suficientes para prosseguir. Às vezes o reconhecimento chega depois. Até mesmo quando já não importa.P.S.: esta crônica é dedicada a Gerdal dos Santos, que em seu programa “Onde Canta o Sabiá” aos domingos de manhã na Rádio Nacional dá calor, carinho e guarida a artistas fora da mídia.
ENGLISH VERSION – an attempt made with a little hand of a good friend, an English teacher [translation by Iracema Brochado]
THE ARTIST OUT OF THE MEDIA
Never deceive an artist out of the media. They’re an angel that has become sad. And above all, never ever disenchant them. It is a mortal sin uttering or thinking: “Poor fellow, they’re finished and still don’t know it”. Don’t be pitiful by falseness: they perceive so. Be patient with their complaints and try to understand their art. There are two kinds of artist out of the media: the ones way above those who sporadically dominate the market and the second-class ones. The former becomes unfairly unhappy, the latter dull. But the dream of both is simple and pure: to exist, to spread sensitive existences, to have the right to show up who they are.Victim of the merciless selective purposes of the market and its greedy specialists, guided by either fair or unfair criteria, with artistic quality or not, they quit selling records, books and drawing audiences altogether.They go into the apartheid of Fame. The artist out of the media is a soul in limbo. They await the sentence of Fate with a hollowed and hurt look of certain dogs. Expelled from the illuminated stage, they withstand injustices and don’t understand what goes on and why they remain forgotten. Wedged between the pride of not begging and the pain of discrimination, they end up being divided between those who get conformed, saddened, and those resentful which find arguments, both fair and unfair, against those who don’t invite them to perform. Never ever promise to an out-of-the-media what you can’t do. More it is worth a sincere NO than a YES impossible of being fulfilled.Never ever greet them with unpleasant looks or consolation words. Nor with handouts of sympathy. Either just offer work or speak to them frankly. They are beings of suffering solitude and gentle dependence on recognition and care. They howl nostalgias to the imaginary moons of their memories. They’re a kind of outcast not currently listed in Human Rights’ handbooks.May God give every artist out of the media patience and perseverance enough to carry on. Sometimes recognition arrives later. Even when it doesn’t matter anymore.P.S.: this article is dedicated to Gerdal dos Santos, who in his program “Onde Canta o Sabiá” [Where the Sabiá Bird Sings], Sunday mornings on Rádio Nacional [a Brazilian radio station from Rio de Janeiro], brings warmth, care and shelter to artists out of the media.
ONLY THEIR GOD KNOWS…
(Sponsored by: CHE-COLA)
[Firstly posted on Facebook, thanks to Sharon]
THE GENDER GAP IN ASPERGER SYNDROME: WHERE ARE THE GIRLS?
(by Lee A. Wilkinson)
A Case Study Published in:
TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus – Volume 4, Issue 4, March 2008
Copyright © 2008 by the author. This work is licensed to the public under the Creative Commons Attribution License
Although there has been a dramatic increase in the recognition of autism spectrum disorders over the past decade, a significant gender gap has emerged in the diagnosis of milder forms, such as high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. Statistics indicate that while boys are being referred and identified in greater numbers, this is not the case for girls.
Girls are also diagnosed at later ages compared to boys. In this article, the author discusses possible explanations for the under identification of girls with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. A case vignette is used to illustrate the gender differences relevant to the understanding and timely diagnosis of girls with this autism spectrum condition. Asperger syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder characterized by problems in social relatedness, empathic communication and understanding, and circumscribed interests in the presence of generally age appropriate language acquisition and cognitive functioning (Volkmar & Klin, 2000).
Students with Asperger syndrome often experience problems related to their social deficits and are at risk for academic underachievement, school drop-out, peer rejection and internalizing problems such as anxiety and depression(Safran, 2002; Wilkinson, 2005). Although there has been a dramatic increase in the number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders over the past decade, a significant gender gap has emerged in the identification of milder forms, such as high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. Statistics indicate that while boys are being referred and identified in greater numbers, this is not the case for girls (Attwood, 2006; Ehlers & Gillberg, 1993; Wagner, 2006).
For example, referrals for evaluation of boys are ten times higher than for girls (Attwood, 2006). Girls are also diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders at later ages relative to boys (Goin-Kochel, Mackintosh, & Meyers, 2006). This gender gap raises serious questions because many female students with Asperger syndrome are being overlooked and may not receive the appropriate educational supports and services. The consequences of a missed or late diagnosis include social isolation, peer rejection, lowered grades, and a greater risk for mental health and behavioral distress such as anxiety and depression during adolescence and adulthood.
Why are fewer girls being identified? Why do parents of girls experience a delay in receiving a diagnosis? Are there gender differences in the expression of the disorder? Answers to these questions have practical implications in that gender specific variations may have a significant impact on identification practices and the provision of educational services for children with autism spectrum disorders (Thompson, Caruso, & Ellerbeck, 2003).
Although few studies have examined gender differences in the expression of autism, we do have several tentative explanations for the under identification and late diagnosis of girls with Asperger syndrome. This article discusses these possibilities and provides a case vignette to illustrate the gender differences relevant to the understanding and timely diagnosis of girls with Asperger syndrome.
Gender role socialization is critical to understanding why girls with Asperger syndrome are being under identified (Faherty, 2006). Since females are socialized differently, autism spectrum disorders may not manifest in the same way as typical male behavioral patterns (Bashe & Kirby, 2005). For example, girls might not come to the attention of parents and teachers because of better coping mechanisms and the ability to “disappear” in large groups (Attwood, 2007). Girls on the higher end of the spectrum also have fewer special interests, better superficial social skills, better language and communication skills, and less hyperactivity and aggression than boys (Gillberg & Coleman, 2000). Likewise, girls are more likely than boys to be guided and protected by.
When I think of my earliest years, I recall an overwhelming desire to be away from my peers. I much preferred the company of my imaginary friends- -Liane Holliday Willey (1999)
Same gender peers have special interests that appear to be more gender appropriate (Attwood, 2006).
These characteristics lessen the probability of a girl being identified as having the core symptom of autism spectrum disorder: an impairment in social skills. In fact, it may be a qualitative difference in social connectedness and reciprocity that differentiates the genders (Attwood, 2007; Kopp & Gillberg, 1992). As a result, parents, teachers, and clinicians may not observe the obvious characteristics associated with the male prototype of higher functioning autism spectrum conditions such as Asperger syndrome (Kopp & Gillberg, 1992; Nyden, Hjelmquist, & Gillberg, 2000).
- Although girls may appear less symptomatic than boys, both genders share similar profiles. Research suggests that when IQ is controlled, the main gender difference is a higher frequency of idiosyncratic and unusual visual interests and lower levels of appropriate play in males compared to females (Lord, Schopler, & Nevicki, 1982). As a result, the behavior and educational needs of boys are much more difficult to ignore and are frequently seen by teachers and parents as being more urgent, further contributing to a referral bias (Kopp & Gillberg, 1992).
- Over reliance on the male model with regard to diagnostic criteria contributes to a gender “bias” and under diagnosis of girls (Kopp & Gillberg, 1992; Nyden et al., 2000). Clinical instruments also tend to exclude symptoms and behaviors that may be more typical of females with autism spectrum disorders.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Asperger syndrome may have a different profile in girls than boys, which in turn, might not be recognized as an autism spectrum disorder (Thompson et al., 2003). While the gender gap in Asperger syndrome has yet to be empirically investigated, if girls do process language and social information differently than boys, then clinical and educational interventions based largely on research with boys may be inappropriate.
As a result, girls may receive less than optimal academic and behavioral interventions and not realize their potential. Further research is urgently needed to examine the similarities and differences between males and females to determine whether the diagnostic definition of Asperger syndrome is valid for both boys and girls (Attwood, 2007). If gender specific variations do exist, then the predictive validity of the diagnosis and developmental course may well differ between the sexes.
In the meantime, educators and school personnel should question the presence of an autism spectrum disorder in female students who may be referred for internalizing problems such as anxiety or depression. Additionally, when a girl presents with a combination of social immaturity, preservative or circumscribed interests, limited eye gaze, repetitive, social isolation, high levels of anxiety and attention problems, and is viewed as “passive” or “odd” by parents, teachers or peers, the likelihood of an autism spectrum disorder should be considered (Wagner, 2006).Lee A. Wilkinson, PhD is a nationally certified school psychologist and adjunct faculty member at Nova Southeastern University with a practice and research interest in the identification and assessment of children with autism spectrum conditions.
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